Diabetes is a disease where the body is unable to maintain the blood glucose levels either due to reduced sensitivity of the insulin receptor molecules or due to reduced production of insulin by the body.
Diabetes is also a disease which affects the functioning of all the organs of the body. The uncontrolled blood glucose levels in diabetics is the root cause for most of the complications. Dental problems and oral problems are usually prevalent in diabetics.
Dental Problems In Diabete
Caries or decaying of the teeth is a common problem in diabetics. Tooth decaying is otherwise a problem for those who do not maintain oral hygiene. There are bacteria present in the mouth of a healthy person. When we eat some food and the particles get lodged in the teeth, this acts a harboring site for bacteria. The germs act on the teeth too.
Plaque formation is another issue which helps in easy decaying of teeth. Plaques helps in breaking the enamel of the teeth. This is how it causes tooth decay. In diabetics, there is higher glucose levels in the blood supplied to the gums and teeth. Like the sugar in food, the sugar in blood also helps in harboring bacteria and leads to the formation of plaques and tooth decay. Hence strict blood sugar level maintenance along with good oral hygiene is absolutely necessary to try to prevent tooth decays.
Loosening Of Teeth
Easy loosening of teeth is another major dental problem in diabetics. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the causes for loosening of teeth. This again is caused by uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The bacterial infection influenced by the high glucose levels causes inflammation of the gums causing loosening of teeth. The infection could also spread to the bone that supports the teeth and cause loosening of teeth. There will usually be pain in the ums with bleeding. Bad breath is very often an accompaniment of gum problems.
Periodontitis is a severe infection found in diabetics. The infection usually spreads from the gums. It affects the soft tissues surrounding the teeth and the bone which provides support to the same. The infection here again is influenced by the high glucose levels which is a major attractant for disease causing bacteria.
The reduced immunity in diabetics is another contributing factor. Lowered immunity means lowered resistance to infection. There is reduced healing properties in diabetics, therefore infections take a longer time to heal. All these factors contribute to the spread and severity of infections. Periodontitis, as it affects the supporting structures of the teeth, causes loosening of the teeth. As in case of general infections, periodontitis also causes blood glucose levels to rise. Hence proper care and management of diabetes and periodontitis is imperative.
Dental Problems And Gingivitis
Diabetes contribute to teeth caries by the formation of plaques on teeth. These plaques not only break down the enamel, but also causes irritation to the gums. The constant irritation results in inflammation of the gums, causing gingivitis. The gums become swollen, inflamed and painful. It can also become spongy and may cause bleeding while brushing.