Diabetes Insipidus is a condition where vasopressin an anti diuretic hormone (ADH), helps the kidneys to regulate and conserve the right quantity of water inside the human body. Usually, ADH regulates the kidneys’ yield of urine. Arginine vasopressin, the ADH, is produced by the hypothalamus, a tiny gland located in the base of the brain, and stored in the pituitary gland.
The hormone is then, released into the bloodstream as required by the body to regulate the urine output. Deficiency of this harmone causes diabetes insipidus (Central diabetes insipidus) and so does the kidney failure to process the harmone (Nephrogrenic diabetes insipidus). There are multiple courses of treatment to deal with this disease.
Dealing With Diabetes Insipidus in Children
Controlled Fluid Intake Therapy
The first and the simplest therapy for dealing with Diabetes Insipidus in Children is to give adequate fluid input which rules out dehydration and its complications. The input fluid is balanced with the measured output of the urine and adequate hydration of the subject is ensured.
However, it should be ensured that the fluid intake has low sodium as this helps in fluid retention. There is not much long term effect of this therapy except that a strict input and output timing will have to be maintained to ensure a smooth and continuing therapy. This is valid both types of Diabetes Insipidus.
Controlled Diet Therapy
In both types of Diabetes Insipidus, diet plays a very important part. Again “low sodium” is the watchword. Try as one might, it is difficult to reduce the amount of this salt in the diet. But it needs innovation and a lot of experimentation to strike a right balance. That needs to be done. Of late low sodium cooking salts have flooded the market. Please do not be under the impression that this is a panacea. The sodium in these products is still high enough to harm the patient.
In case, it’s determined that some previous surgery or accidental damage is the reason for the Diabetes Insipidus in children, hospitalization may be required to correct this damage.
This is a huge advantage as the disease virtually disappears as soon as the causative factor is dealt with in totality. Any residual symptoms will disappear over a period of time and the whole episode can be forgotten as a bad dream. This has to be done even if it means a corrective surgical procedure. “No pain No gain” is true here.
This is a fairly rudimentary medicinal approach to both types of Diabetes Insipidus. This is an attempt to coax pituitary gland or the kidneys to do their duty by stimulating them.
This approach involves a long term medication, usually a tablet each in the morning and evening. It is advantageous to club this course of treatment with low sodium fluid and food intake. There is not much of a compromise in a normal life style but regular checkups will definitely require ensuring total health and adjustment of dosage of medicine.
As an advanced and effective treatment to Central diabetes insipidus, which is neurogenic in nature, the drug of choice is desmopressin [DDAVP]. This is a synthetic anti diuretic hormone analogue. For the nonprofessional, it is a kind of hormone replacement therapy. Two tablets of this along with support medication are all that is there to lead an active life. There is a separate treatment plan for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus ranging from the common aspirin to Thiazide diuretics and Amiloride. However, diet and fluid intake control is also necessary.
There are effective therapies, which are simple and effective. Adjustments are needed and since the issue is Diabetes Insipidus in Children, every new adjustment is a new thing to be tried out. The question of “missing” something is rare. You will be surprised how practical these children are. The prognosis is not bleak at all and real health can be ensured by monitoring and consultations with gastroenterologists. It is always a comfort to be knowledgeable about the status or progression of the condition. It is common knowledge that an aware patient is more open to treatment and comes through therapies with flying colors.