The symptoms of diabetes appear in a gradual manner in adults who are above 40 years of age, so that spotting the symptoms becomes difficult. In adult diabetes or type-2 diabetes, the blood sugar of the patient is unstable. The body produces insulin but fails to respond to it.
On the other hand, the body fails to manufacture enough insulin that is required for a stable glucose level and leads to glucose deficiency. Diabetes can cause serious health complications like kidney and heart disorders, blindness and leg amputation. The adult diabetic symptoms are as follows.
Signs of Adult Diabetes
Frequent Urination (Polyuria)
The patient can have frequent urination and may visit the bathroom often. You may feel like passing urine the whole day. Due to a deficiency or non-functioning of insulin, the kidneys fail to filter glucose into the blood. For diluting the glucose, the kidneys extract extra water from the blood, leading to a full bladder. This causes frequent urination and can lead to dehydration.
Increased Thirst (Polydipsia)
You feel too much thirsty and drink excess water. The kidneys need to exert extra effort to absorb sugar when it filters blood. The removal of excess sugar by the kidney by signaling the brain makes the patient feel thirsty.
An increased thirst is a method of the body to cope up for water loss that results from frequent urination.
Increased Hunger (Polyphagia)
Adult diabetic patients can feel an increased hunger, which is also known as polyphagia. The high blood sugar causes excess production of insulin, which makes the patient feel hungry. Even though the patient takes a high calorie diet, he or she can lose weight. Even though the patient leads an active lifestyle and works hard, he or she cannot maintain the proper sugar levels, feels tired, and fails to gain weight.
Weakness and Fatigue
The glucose from the food we consume goes into the blood and with the help of insulin, it enters the body cells. The cells extract energy from the glucose. Due to insulin deficiency, the glucose does not enter the body cells. The cells do not get energy and this makes the patient feel tired and weak.
Tingling and Numbness in Limbs
Tingling and numbness in limbs is known as neuropathy. It causes damage to nerves of the limbs due to high glucose. Neuropathy can occur when you are unaware that you suffer from this condition. You can overcome neuropathy by controlling the blood sugar levels.
Slow Healing Of Wounds
The high sugar level causes malfunctioning of the white blood cells or WBC. The WBC helps in fighting pathogens and prevents any foreign substances from entering the body. This leads to a delayed healing of wounds and can lead to infections. The high blood sugar may cause the blood vessels to become thick. This prevents proper blood circulation throughout the body.
Other symptoms of adult diabetes are blurred vision, dry skin and itching. Women can have recurrent vaginal infections. Some patients can suffer from acanthosis nigricans, when the skin in some areas like the armpits can become dark and velvety.