Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which is caused by the reduced or non production of insulin. Insulin is an important hormone that is responsible for the breakdown of the blood sugar levels.
The inefficiency of the pancreas to produce the normal levels of insulin required by the body, leads to increased levels of blood sugar and this causes various types of diabetes in children and adults alike.
Evident Causes Related to the Various Types of Diabetes
Pre diabetes is a condition found in some children, adolescents and adults, where in the blood sugar levels are higher than the normal range but not enough to make the diagnosis of diabetes possible. The people who are diagnosed for pre diabetes tend to have strokes, heart disease andType 2 diabetes if the blood sugar levels are not checked. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are some of the other names given to pre diabetes, which is caused due to the reduced breakdown of glucose present in the blood stream.
Type I Diabetes
The Type I is mostly diagnosed in younger adults and children though it can develop at any age. Unknown environmental factors are responsible for triggering off an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas , that attacks the beta cells that are responsible for the production of insulin. This leads to the non production of insulin ,which has to be administered externally through injections. The main cause of the diagnosis of Type I Diabetes is the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin.
Type II Diabetes
The improper production of insulin, insulin resistance or the insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas, leads to the diagnosis of Type II Diabetes in most patients. Insulin is the most important agent responsible for controlling the blood sugar levels and its absence or insufficient production, leads to the accumulation and build up of glucose in the blood. This leads to various serious complications such as hypertension, depression, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, vision and foot problems and nervous system issues, that are progressive in nature.
Type II Diabetes is also caused due to obesity and genetic reasons. Adults, who have crossed the age of 40 and have a history of diabetes in immediate family members, run a high risk of being diagnosed for Type II Diabetes. This disorder is also found in patients who have been diagnosed at an earlier stage for pre diabetes.
The recent studies on Diabetes Type II have revealed that many obese adolescents and teenagers run the risk of being diagnosed for double or hybrid diabetes due to their sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. Adults diagnosed for high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels also end up getting Type II Diabetes, if not treated at the right time.
It is quite common to form higher number of Diabetes Type II cases in certain ethnic and racial groups such as the Asian-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Afro-Americans.
Certain hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause higher requirements for insulin and cause impaired glucose tolerance. Sometimes the pancreas fail to produce sufficient levels of insulin in pregnant women and this leads to an increase in the glucose levels in the blood stream. It is quite common to find gestational diabetes in one out of fifteen pregnant women.
Some of the major factors that contribute to the development of this condition and increase the risk levels for the fetus and the patient are connected to, high obesity levels before conception, history of diabetes in the family, precious pregnancy giving birth to a stillborn or a baby above 9 lbs, previous history of gestational diabetes, glucosuria, etc. Women belonging to the high risk ethnic groups also have increased probabilities of being diagnosed for gestational disorders.
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA)
LADA is sometimes referred to as Type 1.5 Diabetes and generally develops in adults in the age group of 30-40 years. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults is caused by the autoimmune attack on the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Resistance to insulin is not connected to LADA and the patients are found to be comparatively slimmer and physically fit.
As the LADA patients have been found to react positively to medications and the blood sugar levels gets controlled with preliminary treatment and oral medications, it is common to misdiagnose LADA as Type II Diabetes. High blood pressure and high cholesterol levels are also related to the development of LADA.
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)
The presence of defect in a singular gene leads to the development of a rarer type of Diabetesknown as Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young. The disorder is generally found in younger patients and can be detected through genetic testing and the standard tests for diabetes. MODY is therefore caused by genetic problems and can be corrected through oral medications and certain lifestyle changes.
Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM)
This is one of the rarest types of diabetes that is detected in the first six months of child birth. The percentage of the disorder is low and one in 100000-500000 babies may be affected by the same. The increase in the blood sugar levels in these infants is caused due to the non production of insulin. The various types of NDM are permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM).The cause of Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus is typically genetic and the disease can last through the lifetime of the baby. The babies that are diagnosed for NDM often fail to gain weight and have restricted growth in comparison to other normal children.
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases that are affecting people around the world today. Theincreasing levels of inactivity, unhealthy dietary patterns, pollution levels, stress and sedentary lifestyle has led to the detection of this metabolic disorder in many people. There has been a lot of research done on diabetes across the world and the causes of the important types of diabetes are now known and understood by the medical experts and the patients. Proper management of lifestyle and diet can lead to timely treatment and control of diabetes.