Diabetes macrovascular complications are diseases of the blood vessels caused in diabetes patients, influenced by factors like high cholesterol, insulin resistance, smoking, high blood sugar, high blood pressure and blood clotting disorders. There are three main macro vascular complications of diabetes that happen due to an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis risk increases manifold with increasing age, obesity, poor control of blood glucose, high fat diet, inactivity, high blood pressure and smoking. By controlling these vital factors one can reduce the possibility of atherosclerosis and inturn the macrovascular complications of diabetes.
Three Major Macrovascular Diabetes Complications
Diabetic patients have two times higher risk of developing stroke than those, who are non diabetics. Formation of clot and plague may lead to blockage of blood vessels of the brain. Blockage leads certain parts of the brain to die, which do not undergo regeneration anytime again, referred as cerebrovascular stroke.
Diabetic patients usually show high blood pressure, which further leads to pressure in small vessels of the brain, leading to stroke. When the blood vessels get damaged, the excess fat gets deposited in form of foam cells on the walls of blood vessels, furthering narrowing them.
Hence, excess fat is the serious trouble for development of diabetes complications. The symptoms include immobility, impaired speech, tingling or numbness, paralysis in half portion of the body and double vision or blurred vision in one of the eyes.
Diabetics are at higher risk of heart problems and heart attack. Diabetics are known to be at five time greater risk of developing heart attack than the normal individuals. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, where internal organs may get affected (autonomic neuropathy), will not show any heart associated symptoms and may remain unnoticed.
These atypical symptoms could be the reason for misdiagnosis and delay in medical assistance that could have prevent serious trouble or death, if symptoms have been recognized early. The moment one suspects of heart troubles, should inform doctor, in spite of atypical symptoms.
Usual symptoms include shortness of breath, reduced tolerance of physical activity, chronic fatigue, palpitations, swollen ankles or legs and chest pain. In case of autonomic diabetic neuropathy, one may not experience the chest pain.
In patients, with peripheral diabetic neuropathy, there is a chance of developing peripheral arterial disease.
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Diabetics are at a risk of narrowing blood vessels, particularly of the legs and feet. This poor circulation inturn hinders the healing process and even a little injury may develop into a really serious infection.
Severe foot infection may further spread to leg, bones and may need an amputation. Symptoms include leg hair loss, untreatable leg ulcers, calf pain while walking, feet pain at rest and coolness in the lower extremities.
Macrovascular Diabetes Complications
Macrovascular complications are more commonly seen in diabetics with type 2 form than patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes normally undergo other cardiovascular risks, owing to obesity, hypertension and extra lipid or fat accumulation. Macrovascular diseases are enhanced by smoking, dyslipidemia (abnormal amount of lipids), and are the most common cause of premature death in diabetic adults.