The disease of diabetes mellitus is well known as many individuals are affected by it. Diabetes is characterized by excessive levels of glucose in blood. This rise of glucose level is due to the fact that the body cells remain no more capable of utilizing it. But why do the cells lose the capability of utilizing glucose from blood?
Although, glucose is the prime source of energy for all the living cells of the body to carry out their normal physiological functions effectively. Well, this happens due to the reason that the pancreatic cells which produce insulin are destroyed or also due to the impairment of the target receptors of insulin. Hence, in either way insulin becomes incapable of carrying out its function. Insulin functions in the uptake of glucose by the body cells. So when there is no insulin, there is no uptake of blood glucose by the cells.
Common Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
The auto immune destruction of pancreatic beta cells followed by a viral infection can cause diabetes mellitus. The destruction of pancreatic beta cells takes place due to B-cell specific auto immunity system. The cause of diabetes mellitus is due to the lack of insulin that produces pancreatic B cells. The pancreatic B cells stops producing insulin due to auto immune destruction, which results in diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus can also be inherited. There may be a genetic defect of beta cell functioningor there may be present genetic defects in insulin functioning. If a mother or father is suffering from diabetes mellitus, the chances of developing diabetes increase by 80% in the child. It can occur in the early or later stage of life.
Drugs Induced Diabetes
Certain drugs are also responsible for the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in an individual. Drugs such as glucocorticoids can be responsible for causing diabetes mellitus. It may cause hyperglycemia by increasing insulin resistance in liver and muscles and increased gluconeogenesis which may lead to diabetes.
Another class of drugs known as Statins which function in lowering cholesterollevels is known to slightly increase the risks of developing diabetes mellitus. Insulin independent diabetes mellitus is known to be highly associated with excessive weight. Hence, obesity stands out to be one of the various causes of diabetes mellitus (type 2).
If there is an impairment of the pancreas or any pathology of the pancreas, then it may lead to diabetes mellitus.
Chronic pancreatitis is the prolonged inflammation of pancreas due to which, its normal functions are altered, which causes diabetes mellitus.
Removal of Pancreas
Diabetes mellitus may also be caused due to the surgical removal of the pancreas or pancreatectomy.Hence, due to the absence of endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas, diabetes can occur. Neoplasm of pancreas or pancreatic cancer may stand out to be one of the various causes of diabetes mellitus.
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, liver and intestine. It can also be the cause behind diabetes mellitus.