iabetes is the disease in which the levels of blood glucose are high. This disease might lead to several complications in the long-term. One of those complications is injury to the circulatory system or vascular system. If we look at the reason majorly responsible for the vascular complications due to Diabetes it’s poor control of high blood sugar levels.
Yet, the route from the onset of Diabetes to the destruction of blood vessels is a long way and is complex. The real mechanisms that follow this route are still not completely understood. In this article, we shall discuss about some of the important causes for the vascular complications due to Diabetes.
Important Causes of Vascular Complications Due to Diabetes
High Blood Glucose Levels
Below are some of the causes responsible for vascular complications under this section.
Impact of Automatic Insulin Pumps on Blood Glucose Levels
It was not understood properly whether the high blood glucose levels were responsible for the vascular damage in the long-term or whether there is any other reason behind the vascular damage. Several big studies were done where the blood glucose levels of the patients were controlled by using automatic insulin pumps compared to those who used less stringent methods. From these studies it is evident that the high blood glucose levels are responsible for the vascular complications.
Impact of Blood Sugar Control on Vascular Complications
It was published in “The Lancet” issue of September 1998 about a scientific study that involved 3867 Diabetic patients. These patients were followed for a period of ten years and it was found that the vascular complications were 11 percent less in patients who could control the blood glucose levels. All these studies could indicate or establish that high blood sugar levels were actually responsible for the vascular complications. But, the process or mechanism of the result of these complications is not established yet.
Mechanisms Involved En-Route from Blood Sugar Elevation to Complications
There are a few possible mechanisms that were investigated on and concluded that these mechanisms might be responsible for causing vascular complications in Diabetic patients.
he way in which all of these processes are interacting with each other to initiate vascular damage is not clear.
Formation of Sugar Alcohol
Another possible reason for the vascular destruction is high sugars present chronically due to the increased synthesis of sugar alcohols like sorbitol. Below are some of the causes responsible for vascular complications under this section.
High Sorbitol Levels
From the results of autopsy, it is determined that the greater vascular damage is related with higher levels of sorbitol. This association was studied in animals as well as in diabetic humans. Few trial medications proved to be effective in reducing the diabetic complications, were used for blocking the synthesis of sugar alcohols in the body.
Mechanisms Responsible for Elevating Sorbitol Levels
The exact mechanism by which the higher levels of sugar alcohols resulting in damage of blood vessels is complex and might involve internal signaling pathways. Until it is established clearly that sugar alcohols are responsible for vascular complications in diabetes, it is suggested for the diabetic patients to avoid sorbitol products.
Below is one of the causes for vascular complication under this section
Inflammation in the Blood Vessel Walls
When the glucose levels are increased in blood, the glucose molecules will bind with the proteins including the structural proteins of the blood vessel walls. These complexes will make the walls to become less flexible and not able to react to the alterations in pressure due to the pumping of blood. Therefore, after sometime these blood vessels destroy their structural integrity, which results in swelling as well as formation of scars.