The diabetes is a serious condition and the treatment strategies for it requires commitment round the clock. Taking care of diabetes properly will reduce the risk of developing serious and sometimes life threatening complications. The diabetic complications are classified mainly as two categories.
One is macro vascular complications and the other one is micro vascular complications. Macro vascular complications initially affect the large blood vessels while micro vascular complications affect the small blood vessels resulting in damage of the kidneys, nerves and eyes.
The macro vascular complications include coronary artery disease, cerebro- vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, and micro-vascular diseases include neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. The other complications include changes in bone density, frozen shoulder, collagen disorders, altered clotting factors, impaired wound healing, erectile dysfunction and periodontal disease.
As per the information collected by the center for disease control and prevention and by the national institute for digestive and kidney diseases, it is estimated that a huge number of people suffering from diabetes have micro vascular and macro vascular complications. This article discusses about a few ways of taking care of diabetes and preventing the risk of complications due to diabetes.
Ways to Reduce the Risk of Diabetes Complications
Managing the Diabetes
The members of the team that take care of diabetes like diabetes nurse educator, doctor and dietician will help the team to study and understand the basics of the diabetes care and will provide lot of support and encouragement. The condition can be managed effectively if the individual takes care of himself/herself.
Every individual can start learning about the details of diabetes and effectively manage it by eating healthy food and by doing physical activity every day. It is also important to maintain healthy weight. The blood sugar levels have to be monitored daily and it has to be controlled with the help of the instructions given by the physician. The sugar levels have to be kept within the target range. It is vital to take the help of the diabetes team meant for providing treatment whenever needed.
Smoking Has to be Avoided
If any individual with diabetes has the habit of smoking, it is essential for him/her to request the doctor to help the person in quitting the habit. The complications of diabetes and their risks are enhanced by smoking. Smoking leads to the diabetic complications like nerve damage, heart attack, kidney disease and stroke. It is evaluated by the American Diabetes Association that smokers are expected to have three times higher risk of cardiovascular deaths compared to that of non-smokers.
Controlling the Cholesterol and Blood Pressure
High blood pressure will destroy the blood vessels like diabetes. The diabetic patients also suffer from damaged blood vessels with the presence of high cholesterol. If these two conditions are present in the diabetics then it can lead to heart attack or life threatening situations or stroke. Eating healthy food and performing physical exercise will help a long way in managing the high blood pressure and high cholesterol. In some cases, drugs also can help.
Examination of Eye and Physical Body Every Year
The diabetic check-up will not be the same as the regular annual physical and eye examinations. The physician during the regular physical examination will try to identify the diabetic complications like nerve damage, kidney damage, and heart problems. The eye specialist will check for the presence of symptoms associated with cataract, retinal damage and glaucoma.
Vaccination to be Updated
As the immune system can be weakened by hypertension, it becomes essential to use vaccines routinely. Physician can be consulted to get complete information about this matter.
The annual flu vaccine will help in staying healthy at the time of flu season and also avoid severe complications caused by flu.
Mostly the pneumonia vaccine is given in only one shot. But, if the person has diabetic complications and he/she is aged above 65 years then a booster dose might be necessary.
Hepatitis B vaccine
The center for disease control and prevention has recommended the people to get vaccinated against Hepatitis B if they are between 19 years and 59 years of age and have type1 or type 2 diabetes. The guidelines of this organization insists the diabetics to get vaccinated immediately after they are diagnosed with diabetes.
If the individual is older than 60 years and is diabetic as well, he/she is suggested to meet the doctor regarding this vaccination if he/she has not got this vaccination before. The tetanus vaccination also has to be followed properly by taking the 10 year booster dose. Based on the conditions and circumstances, the physician might suggest other vaccines as well.